ULTRA P.A.S.S Sonography Principles & Instrumentation Registry Review Workbook

Date of Original Release: 6/1/2007
Reviewed for content accuracy: 4/20/2016
Reviewed by: Gulfcoast Ultrasound CME Committee
This edition valid for credit through: 7/20/2016

Length: 178 pages, 4 audio CDs, 1 DVD
ISBN: 978-1-932680-76-8

Price:  $129.95
Code: PAU-CD1-PHYS
17.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)

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Topics & Objectives

SECTION 1:  ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES

• Discuss sound and terms associated with the production of    sound waves
• Explain the relationships between frequency, wavelength,  and propagation speed.
• State the properties of ultrasound waves and their effects upon each other.
• Describe physical units as they apply to diagnostic ultrasound
• Describe measurement dimensions and how they relate to diagnostic ultrasound

SECTION 2:  PROPAGATION OF ULTRASOUND THROUGH TISSUES

• Describe the interaction of sound with tissue
• Explain the attenuation of sound and sources associated  with attenuation
• State useful diagnostic frequency ranges
• Discuss and explain terminology associated with image  characteristics

SECTION 3:  ULTRASOUND TRANSDUCERS

• Describe the piezoelectric effect
• Identify the various types of transducers
• Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various types  of transducers
• Explain the formation of the sound beam
• Describe resolution and discuss the various parameters that affect resolution.
• Discuss the care and maintenance of transducers and the  importance of maintaining them.
• Explain the different methods of focusing

SECTION 4: PULSE ECHO INSTRUMENTS

• Discuss the general concepts of the range equation
• Explain pulsing characteristics including pulse repetition  frequency, pulse repetition period, pulse duration, spatial pulse  length, and duty factor
• Discuss the various stages and components of pulse echo instruments
• Describe dynamic range

SECTION 5:  PRINCIPLES of PULSE ECHO IMAGING

• Explain the difference between A-mode, M-mode, and B-mode.
• Recognize the advantages of the various imaging modes
• Discuss scan speed limitations
• Perform range equation calculations and explain its relationship to pulsing characteristics
• Describe temporal resolution

SECTION 6:  IMAGES, STORAGE, and DISPLAY

• Discuss the role of the scan converter
• Explain the various steps in the scan version process
• Differentiate the types of scan converters (digital versus  analog)
• Identify the various types of display devices
• Explain the differences between pre and post-processing
• State the various processes associated with pre and post-processing.
• Explain persistence, frame averaging, and other functions  associated with pre and post-processing
• Discuss the various types of recording and archiving devices  and techniques

SECTION 7:  HEMODYNAMICS, DOPPLER, COLOR FLOW, and COLOR POWER IMAGING

• Describe hemodynamics
• Discuss the effects of viscosity, friction, and inertia associated with hemodynamic flow
• Differentiate steady verses pulsatile flow
• Explain the difference between laminar verses turbulent flow
• Describe the effects of stenosis on the characteristics of blood flow
• Explain venous flow, hydrostatic pressure and the pressure/volume relationship
• State the effects of respiration on venous flow
• Apply Doppler principles and the factors that affect flow
• Describe the differences between continuous wave and pulsed wave Doppler
• Explain the advantages and disadvantages of both types of Doppler
• Discuss color flow imaging and the advantages and limitations
• Describe and discuss the instrumentation used to produce color flow imaging
• Discuss color power Doppler and explain its advantages and limitations

SECTION 8:  ARTIFACTS

• State the definition of an artifact
• Discuss the various types of artifacts
• Explain the mechanisms behind the production of the various artifacts
• Describe the characteristics of the various artifacts
• Discuss the effects of artifacts on measurements

SECTION 9:  QUALITY ASSURANCE of ULTRASOUND INSTRUMENTS

• Explain the need for a quality assurance program
• Discuss the various methods used to evaluate the performance of ultrasound instruments
• Describe the differences between test objects and tissue phantoms
• Explain the parameters that are evaluated with tissue phantoms
• Discuss the parameters that are evaluated with test objects
• Describe the materials used in the various phantoms and test objects to obtain measurements
• Explain the need for preventative maintenance and record keeping
• Describe statistical indices and state their importance

SECTION 10:  BIOEFFECTS and SAFETY

• Explain the various acoustic output quantities
• Discuss the methods used to determine power
• Describe the various intensities associated with diagnostic ultrasound
• Explain relationship of intensity and power to various operating modes
• Discuss the acoustic output labeling standard associated with thermal and mechanical index
• Describe the ALARA principle and its implementation
• Apply the methods needed to reduce acoustic exposure
• Discuss the production of biologic effects
• Differentiate cavitation and thermal mechanisms
• Explain the use of various experimental studies regarding biological effects
• Discuss the guidelines and regulations set forth by the AIUM, NEMA, and FDA
• Describe the various electrical and mechanical hazards associated with diagnostic imaging


New! Prepare for your Sonography Principles and Instrumentation (SPI) or General Ultrasond Physics boards with Gulfcoast's ULTRA "Preparation Agenda for Study Success" tools!

The ULTRA P.A.S.S. workbook provides a comprehensive written and narrated format of the topics listed on the ARDMS registry outlines. This workbook is designed so you can easily find a specific subject of study at any time. This spiral-bound workbook includes 178 pages, self-tests after each section and 5 digital audio CDs that can be played on current portable and car CD players or computer CD drives.

Authors
@(instructor.InstructorName)
Corky Hecht, BA, RT(N), RDMS, RDCS, RVT
Faculty & Content Disclosures...
Faculty Disclosure
Gulfcoast Ultrasound Institute, Inc. adheres to ACCME Essential Areas, Standards, and Policies regarding industry support of CME. Speakers will disclose any relevant commercial relationships prior to the start of the educational activity.

Content Validation
All presentations for this CME activity were reviewed and approved by members of the GUI CME Review Committee to determine content validity and to ensure that no conflicts of interest exist prior to the activity commencement or material compilation.

Disclosure of Individuals in Control of Content
In addition to the faculty listed the following individuals are recognized by GUI as being in control of content of this program:

James Mateer, MD, RDMS (Medical Director-planner, QI Task Force Subcommittee)
Medical Director, Gulfcoast Ultrasound Institute
No relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Andreas Dewitz, MD, RDMS(Member of Advisory Board, QI Task Force Subcommittee)
Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine
Vice Chair of Ultrasound Education
Boston Medical Center
Boston, MA
No relevant financial relationships to disclose

Lori Green, BA, RT, RDMS, RDCS, RVT (Program Director/planner and reviewer, QI Task Force Subcommittee)
President, Gulfcoast Ultrasound Institute, Inc.
No relevant financial relationships to disclose

Brian Schenker, MBA, RDMS, RVT
Program Coordinator, Gulfcoast Ultrasound Institute, Inc.
No relevant financial relationships to disclose

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Compatibility Requirements
system requirements: Windows 95, 98, NT 4.0 or later, 2000, or XP, 16MB RAM) and a new companion DVD that features real-time exams illustrating various pathologies referenced in the workbook (DVD is compatible with set-top DVD players, DVD-Rom drives, DVD-R drives, and DVD+R drives).
Continuing Education Credits
The Gulfcoast Ultrasound Institute is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

The Gulfcoast Ultrasound Institute designates this enduring material for a maximum of 17.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s). Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

This course also meets CME/CEU requirements for ARDMS. Note: While offering the CME credit hours noted above, activities are not intended to provide extensive training or certification for exam performance or interpretation.

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